Encapsulation tcp in udp

How Encapsulation Works within the TCP/IP Model: A Brief Guid

Encapsulation de données et pile de protocoles TCP/IP

UDP encapsulation is used to allow IPSec traffic to successfully traverse a NAT device. For more information on NAT traversal (NATT), see IPSec and network address translation devices. z/OS® Communications Server supports NAT traversal for IPv4 traffic only. z/OS Communications Server supports both tunnel and transport modes of UDP encapsulation. As shown in Figure 1, UDP-encapsulated. Data Encapsulation and the TCP/IP Protocol Stack. The packet is the basic unit of information transferred across a network, consisting, at a minimum, of a header with the sending and receiving hosts' addresses, and a body with the data to be transferred. As the packet travels through the TCP/IP protocol stack, the protocols at each layer either add or remove fields from the basic header. When. L'encapsulation, en informatique et spécifiquement pour les réseaux informatiques, est un procédé consistant à inclure les données d'un protocole dans un autre protocole. Exemples. Par exemple, l'Internet est basé sur l'Internet Protocol version 4 et la plupart des applications utilisent aussi bien l'UDP (User Datagram Protocol) que le TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

Encapsulation et décapsulation TCP/IP - WayToLearn

I do not know what you mean by guaranteed encapsulation, it makes no sense to me. With IP there is no guarantee of packet delivery of the order whether UDP or TCP. As long as you control both sides of the conversation, you can work out your own protocol within the data packet to handle ordering and post packets. Reserve the first x bytes of. Explanation: Both UDP and TCP use port numbers to provide a unique identifier for each conversation. Source port numbers are randomly generated and are used to track different conversations. Destination port numbers identify specific services by using either a default port number for the service or a port number that is assigned manually by a system administrator Both TCP and UDP have their advantages and disadvantages. UDP is faster, simpler and efficient and hence generally used for sending audio, video files. TCP, on the other hand, is robust, reliable and guarantees the delivery of packets in the same order. Hence, we conclude that both TCP and UDP are essential for data transmission This video provides a visual introduction to the what happens to information as it moves down through the TCP/IP network protocol stack. It was made using th.. create UDP packet. u can do that can't u? then encapsulate the TCP packet in the UDP data field. that should do. but send it on the UDP port or else it may not get accepted by the reciever. plus the reciever should now what it got just now is a TCP packet encapsulated in a UDP so be careful.. shrike_91

TCP, UDP and IP Encapsulation - YouTub

File:UDP encapsulation.svg. Jump to navigation Jump to search. File; File history; File usage ; Global file usage File:UDP encapsulation.png; Global file usage. The following other wikis use this file: Usage on af.wikipedia.org Internetprotokol; Usage on bg.wikipedia.org Беседа:TCP/IP; Usage on bn.wikipedia.org ইন্টারনেট প্রোটোকল সুইট; Usage Is there any way to get Wireshark to decode Ethernet frames that have been encapsulated/tunneled in a TCP (or UDP if that as easier) stream? For TCP, the encapsulation mechanism would have to include some mechanism for delimiting Ethernet frames, as there are NO packet boundaries visible to protocols running atop TCP; the protocol itself has to use some mechanism, such as a packet length field. IPsec encapsulation over TCP Sabrina Dubroca sd@queasysnail.net Red Hat netdev 0x13, 2019-03-22 1/22. Introduction 2/22. ESP and IKE I Components of the IPsec protocol suite ESP Encapsulating Security Payload AHAuthentication Header IKE Internet Key Exchange I Packet formatsIP ESP Data Figure:ESP packet format IP UDP IKE header IKE payload Figure:IKE over UDP port 500 packet format 3/22. UDP. UDP-ESP Encapsulation Types. 04/20/2017; 2 minutes to read; In this article [The IPsec Task Offload feature is deprecated and should not be used.] The following figure shows the UDP encapsulation of Internet Key Exchange (IKE) packets and ESP-protected data packets that are received on port 4500. Note the four bytes of zeros that follow the UDP header in IKE packets. This field of zeros. IP will run on anything that will let you transmit a Frame (which is basically anything that will let you transmit bits in serial). I've run IP on pulsed mud (2 bits per second!), differential mode drivers over barbed wire (100k bits per second!),..

This has been a guide to TCP vs UDP. Here we discuss Overview of TCP vs UDP and Explain Head to Head comparison along with key difference. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more - FTP vs TFTP- Top Differences; Overloading vs Overriding | Top 7 comparison; Abstraction vs Encapsulation; OSI Model vs TCP/IP Mode Question: How do the encapsulation work in TCP/IP network? Simple explanation, the encapsulation means the lower layer of TCP/IP protocol suite would wrap (encapsulate) the upper layer's data, header and add its own header/footer with protocol information, then send to lower layer again till the encapsulated data is sent out to other networking device, finally the unwrapping (decapsulation. tement sur IP (num´ero de protocole 47, TCP etant 6 et UDP 17). Cela pr´ esente quelques inconv´ enients,´ notamment la difficulte´ `a passer certaines middleboxes, et ce nouveau RFC propose donc une encapsu-lation de GRE dans UDP, et non plus directement dans IP. Un des autres avantages de cette encapsulation est que le port source UDP peut etre utilisˆ e comme une source d. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Encapsulation of a UDP datagram * ¶ The following figure shows the encapsulation of a UDP datagram as a single IPv4 datagram. The IPv6 encapsulation is similar, but other details differ slightly (Section 10.5). The IPv4 Protocol field has the value 17 to indicate UDP. IPv6 uses the same value (17) in the Next Header field. Later in this chapter describes what. Le protocole de tunnel GRE, normalisé dans les RFC 2784 et RFC 7676, tourne normalement directement sur IP (numéro de protocole 47, TCP étant 6 et UDP 17). Cela présente quelques inconvénients, notamment la difficulté à passer certaines middleboxes, et ce nouveau RFC propose donc une encapsulation de GRE dans UDP, et non plus directement dans IP

En informatique ils existent bon nombre de protocoles : HTTP, IP, TCP, UDP,... Un service est une interface qui permet de mettre en place un protocole. Le modèle TCP/IP. TCP/IP, un modèle en 4 couches . Pour communiquer nous avons besoin de définir des modèles qui constituent des normes de communication. Le modèle OSI est le modèle théorique qui encadre les échanges sur un réseau. Il. utilisent aussi bien l'UDP (User Datagram Protocol) que le TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). Ainsi un fragment de donnée est encapsulé dans un datagramme UDP qui lui-même est encapsulé dans un paquet IP, ce dernier étant alors envoyé via un protocole de la couche de liaison (par exemple Ethernet). La couche de liaison est responsable de la transmission physique des données ; IP.

design for a TCP-in-UDP encapsulation scheme which is able to work around the problems created by multi-path routing, as well as delivering other advantages, which we implement in the FreeBSD kernel. In order to be able to test and evaluate this mechanism, we also present and implement a design for TCP congestion control coupling based on the Flow State Exchange architecture. Finally, we carry. Encapsulation and Decapsulation are two terms related to the transmission of data through each layer. the key difference between encapsulation and decapsulation is that , during encapsulation, the data moves from the upper layer to the lower layer and each layer includes a packet of information, called a header, with the actual data, while from decapsulation, data moves from the bottom layer. TCP/IP Encapsulation by Dinesh Thakur Category: Computer Network TCP/I P encapsulate upper layers using headers for the purpose of exchanging control and status information about the progress of the communication because its protocol s also engage in peer talk by encapsulating data with protocol headers before submitting it to the underlying layer for subsequent delivery to the network

The problem addressed is that when UDP is blocked on networks behind strict NATs, IKE should fall back to using TCP encapsulation and route out. The RFC specifies various standards for implementing this. It was ensured that the MUSTs in the RFC are implemented, so that Libreswan could be used as a client or a server with other standard implementations. Important thing to note is that kernel. IKEv2 and ESP use UDP port 4500 generally TCP Encapsulation sends those messages over a TCP stream on 4500 (but others ports can be configured) TCP stream begins with a Stream Prefix of magic bytes to validate the protocol against previous non-standard uses of TCP 4500 Each datagram is framed with a 16-bit length field. IKEv2 packets are distinguished from ESP by the first four bytes. UDP encapsulation; IPSec Path Maximum Transmission Unit (IPSec PMTU) Check Point resolves port filtering issues with Visitor Mode (formally: TCP Tunneling). Other Connectivity Issues. Other connectivity issues can arise, for example when a remote client receives an IP address that matches an IP on the internal network. Routing issues of this sort are resolved using Office mode. For more.

Packets and Encapsulation UNIX can support a variety of physical networks, including Ethernet, FDDI, token ring, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), wireless, and serial-line-based systems. Hardware is managed within the link layer of the TCP/IP architecture, and higher-level protocols do not know or care about the specific hardware being used. Data travels on a network in the form of packets. Note: PMTUD is only supported by TCP and UDP. Other protocols do not support it. If PMTUD is enabled on a host, and it almost always is, all TCP and UDP packets from the host will have the DF bit set. When a host sends a full MSS data packet with the DF bit set, PMTUD reduces the send MSS value for the connection if it receives information that the packet would require fragmentation. A host. TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec Packets (RFC 8229, August 2017) and IPsec packets over a TCP connection for traversing network middleboxes that may block IKE negotiation over UDP. This method, referred to as TCP encapsulation, involves sending both IKE packets for Security Association establishment and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) packets over a TCP connection. This method is.

January 1 tcp/ip invention - Undercover Blog

TCP-over-UDP is traditional TCP using UDP/IP as the datagram transport, instead of just raw IP as the datagram transport. Existing TCP facilities such as window scaling, timestamps, selective ack, and TCP header options are supported, as they are with native TCP. In fact, TCP options are expected to work more reliably with TCP-over-UDP, because middleboxes will be less able to easily interfere. Request PDF | UDP Encapsulation in Linux | UDP encapsulation encompasses the techniques and protocols to encapsulate and decapsulate networking packets of various protocols inside UDP. UDP.

Encapsulation | Article about encapsulation by The Free

encapsulation definition: Noun (plural encapsulations) 1. The act of enclosing in a capsule; the growth of a membrane around (any part) so as to enclose it in a capsule. 2. (computing, programming, in object-oriented programming) Grouping together an object.. UDP Encapsulation in Linux netdev0.1 Conference February 16, 2015 Tom Herbert <therbert@google.com> Topics UDP encapsulation Common offloads Foo over UDP (FOU) Generic UDP Encapsulation (GUE) Basic idea of UDP encap Put network packets into UDP payload Two general methods No encapsulation header: protocol of packet is inferred from port number Encapsulation header: extra header between UDP.

Encapsulation of TCP and other Transport Protocols over UDP

IPsec encapsulation over TCP Sabrina Dubroca sd@queasysnail.net IPsec workshop 2019 1/11. UDP encapsulation 0 8 12 UDP SPI SN Data Figure:ESP over UDP packet format 0 8 12 UDP 0 IKE header IKE payload Figure:IKE over UDP port 4500 packet format I RX node uses the rst 32 bits of UDP payload to di erentiate ESP/IKE 2/11. RFC 8229: packet formats TCP stream, composed of concatenated messages 0 1. RFC8086, GRE-in-UDP Encapsulation A simple Internet search for the term internet draft over udp also discovers a number of current and expired Internet Drafts describing UDP encapsulation of other protocols, including, surprisingly, a number proposing the encapsulation of TCP in UDP

c# - Encapsulating UDP in a TCP protocol - Stack Overflo

  1. TCP/IP is a large family of protocols that is named after its two most important members. Figure 1 shows the TCP/IP protocols used by CICS® TCP/IP, in terms of the layered Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, which is widely used to describe data communication systems.For CICS users who might be more accustomed to SNA, the left side of Figure 1 shows the SNA layers, which correspond very.
  2. ute to sign up. Sign up to join this community. Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top Home ; Questions ; Tags ; Users ; Unanswered ; How does data encapsulation work in the TCP/IP stack? Ask Question Asked 3 years, 4 months ago.
  3. UDP Checksum: For IPv4 UDP encapsulation, this field is RECOMMENDED to be set to zero for performance or implementation reasons because the IPv4 header includes a checksum and use of the UDP checksum is optional with IPv4. For IPv6 UDP encapsulation, the IPv6 header does not include a checksum, so this field MUST contain a UDP checksum that MUST be used as specified in [RFC0768] and [RFC2460.
  4. TCP Encapsulation A TCP segment encapsulates the data received from the application layer. The TCP segment is encapsulated in an IP da..
  5. So at least 40 bytes in each TCP packet is the header data that comes before the actual payload. UDP. Unlike TCP, User Datagram Protocol does not come with much features. It comes with a checksum header for packet integrity but connection reliably as a whole is not guaranteed. In fact a UDP stream can hardly be called a connection at all. It.

The Data Encapsulation Process 1. One computer requests to send data to another over a network. 2. The data message flows through the Application Layer by using a TCP or UDP port to pass onto the internet layer. 3 UDP Message Encapsulation: The higher-layer message is encapsulated into the Data field of a UDP message. The headers of the UDP message are filled in, including the Source Port of the application that sent the data to UDP, and the Destination Port of the intended recipient

UDP encapsulation of IPSec ESP packets - IB

Data Encapsulation and De-encapsulation Explained Learn how data is encapsulated and de-encapsulated when it passes through the layers of OSI and TCP/IP models. In networking model, the terms encapsulation and de-encapsulation refer to a process in which protocol information is added to the data and removed from the data when it passes through the layers To enable Raw Socket Transport on the CGR 2010 router, you must first enable an asynchronous serial port and enable Raw Socket TCP or UDP encapsulation for that port. BEFORE YOU BEGIN Determine availability of the serial port on the CGR 2010 The comparison between TCP and UDP tunnels have not been sufficiently reported in the scientific literature. In this work, we use OpenVPN as a platform to demonstrate the performance between TCP/UDP RFC3948 Encapsulation UDP de paquets ESP IPsec Huttunen & autres source) les opérations s'annulent et n'ont pas besoin d'être effectuées. 2. Si l'en-tête de protocole après l'en-tête ESP est un en-tête TCP/UDP, recalculer le champ Somme de contrôle dans l'en-tête TCP/UDP. 3. Si l'en-tête de protocole après l'en-tête.

Data Encapsulation and the TCP/IP Protocol Stack (System

Nous avons eu l'occasion de voir avec les protocoles TCP et IP le processus d'encapsulation des données : IP encapsule TCP. Les paquets IP ne peuvent pas transiter sur un réseau tel quel, ils vont eux aussi être encapsulés avant de pouvoir voyager sur le réseau. L'encapsulation des paquets IP produit ce que l'on appelle une trame. Il n'est pas question d'étudier en détail ce qu'est. TCP 264 - Topology download was used by SecureClient. TCP 443 - In Visitor Mode, all VPN traffic is tunneled through port 443. UDP 500 - IKE. TCP 500 - IKE over TCP. IP protocol 50 - ESP (the actual encrypted data; not necessary to allow this, if using UDP encapsulation) UDP 2746 - UDP encapsulation (encapsulates IP protocol 50 ESP packets

Encapsulation (réseau) — Wikipédi

About TCP/UDP Ports. Port Number 0 to 1023: These TCP/UDP port numbers are known well-known ports. These ports are assigned to specific server sevice by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). For example, port 80 is used by web servers. Port Numbers 1024 to 49151: These are ports that an organization, such as application developers, can register with IAMA to be used for a particular. File:UDP encapsulation.svg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to navigation Jump to search. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis; Metadata; Size of this PNG preview of this SVG file: 800 × 500 pixels. Other resolutions: 320 × 200 pixels | 640 × 400 pixels | 1,024 × 640 pixels | 1,280 × 800 pixels. Original file ‎ (SVG file, nominally. Encapsulation des données Une trame Ethernet est adressée à une adresse MAC Un paquet IP (couche 3) est destiné à une adresse IP Un PDU (couche 4 - UDP ou TCP) est destiné à un port Les données sont destinées à une application Carte Ethernet Pile IP (système) Pile PDU (système) Socket (système

TCP ports use the Transmission Control Protocol, the most commonly used protocol on the Internet and any TCP/IP network. TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent. Guaranteed communication/delivery is the key difference between TCP and UDP Protocol), du protocole UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ou d'un autre protocole de niveau 4. Décodage de segment TCP Un segment TCP est également composé d'un entête et d'un contenu (non représenté ci-dessous). TPDU (segment) du protocole TCP Notez qu'une case représente une position bit

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are the siblings of the transport layer in the TCP/IP protocol suite. They perform the same role, providing an interface between applications and the data-moving capabilities of the Internet Protocol (IP), but they do it in very different ways. The two protocols thus provide choice to higher-layer protocols. Le User Datagram Protocol (UDP, en français protocole de datagramme utilisateur) est un des principaux protocoles de télécommunication utilisés par Internet.Il fait partie de la couche transport du modèle OSI, quatrième couche de ce modèle, comme TCP.Il a été défini par David P. Reed (en) et est détaillé dans la RFC 768.. Le rôle de ce protocole est de permettre la transmission de. TCP/IP est une suite de protocoles. Le sigle TCP/IP signifie «Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol» et se prononce «T-C-P-I-P». Il provient des noms des deux protocoles majeurs de. as older 3G links then TCP encap instead of UDP. Other VPN client setups seem to do similar things. > >So, i wonder how PPTP is popular compared to L2TP ? >Any ideas ? > If you want simple then throw all the thick client stuff out and go for SSL - but there are some apps that just do not work well or at all in a web front end setup. >Thx in advans, >Karthik Balaguru--Regards stephen_hope. Encapsulation. Encapsulation takes information from a higher layer and adds a header to it, treating the higher layer information as data. It is often said, One layer's header is another layer's data. [3] For example, as the data moves down the stack in the TCP/IP model, Application Layer data is encapsulated in a Layer 4 TCP segment

TCP / UDP : Quelles différences ? - Comment Ça March

  1. TCP UDP DHCP ping Transport Réseau Liaison Application traceroute 184. LPSIL ADMIN 2014- M.A. Peraldi-Frati - IUT Nice Côte d'Azur DHCP, ftp, http, telnetssh. XI - Applications réseaux 185. LPSIL ADMIN 2014-- IUT Nice Côte d'Azur LPSIL ADMIN 2014- M.A. Peraldi-Frati - IUT Nice Côte d'Azur DHCP : Attribution d'adresses IP Pour l'attribution dynamique des adresses IP, on.
  2. L'encapsulation, en informatique et spécifiquement pour les réseaux informatiques, version 4 et la plupart des applications utilisent aussi bien l'UDP (User Datagram Protocol) que le TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). Ainsi un fragment de donnée (Dans les technologies de l'information (TI), une donnée est une description élémentaire, souvent codée, d'une chose, d'une transaction d.
  3. Specify the IP address and TCP port number on which to listen. MMSH: This access method allows you to stream to Microsoft Windows Media Player. Specify the IP address and TCP port number on which to listen. Note: This will only work with the ASF encapsulation method. UDP: Stream in unicast by providing an address in the - range or in multicast by providing an address in.

With the display filter tcp.port == 80 && udp.port == 80 you are looking for traffic which is TCP and UDP port 80 however a packet cannot be both TCP and UDP at the same time (without complicated encapsulation that's out of scope of this thread anyway) What communications (TCP/UDP) ports do GE Products use? Id: 000035227; Average User Rating: Your Rating: Last Ethernet Encapsulation: Yes, Property window: 4840: IGS: OPC UA Client - Local Discovery Service: No: 49310: IGS: OPC UA Server: Yes, 000019505: 3333: Common Licensing: Used to connect Local License Server : Yes, 000033940: 443: Common Licensing: Used to connect GE Cloud License. UDP-Lite: Lightweight User Datagram Protocol: datagram (packet) based, unreliable, connectionless transfer of data . TCP: Transmission Control Protocol: stream based, reliable, connection oriented transfer of data . PortReference: TCP/UDP port numbers ThTextese protocols run atop UDP, and provide additional transport-layer services

Encapsulating IP in UDP - IETF Tool

  1. WireGuard encapsulation includes the UDP header. Add IPv4 or IPv6 for WireGuard over IPv4 or WireGuard over IPv6. This calculator does not check if specified encapsulation is any practical, if implementations exist, or if protocols are in correct order. In theory you can encapsulate anything in anything, in practice it usually turns out there.
  2. Remarque: le processus d'encapsulation et de décapsulation est identique pour le modèle TCP/IP. Pour preuve, je n'ai pas affiché sur le schéma du dessus les entêtes 5, 6 et 7 car ce ne sont qu'un seul entête dans le modèle TCP/IP. Il se peut que des questions du CCNA portent une fois sur le modèle OSI, une autre fois le modèle.
  3. ファイル:UDP encapsulation.svg. ナビゲーションに移動 検索に移動. ファイル; ファイルの履歴; ファイルの使用状況; グローバルなファイル使用状況; メタデータ; この SVG ファイルのこの PNG プレビューのサイズ: 800 × 500 ピクセル. その他の解像度: 320 × 200 ピクセル | 640 × 400 ピクセル | 1,024 × 640.
  4. Something that might be causing ambiguity is that I've been using Cisco VPN to get to the train operators HIS server. I realised tonight that the VPN was configured to allow clients to operate through a NAT device using UDP encapsulation. This might explain the packets going down the tunnel as UDP. I might have to see if I can go visit their.

Encapsulation (networking) - Wikipedi

  1. TCP and UDP aren't the only protocols that work on top of IP. However, they are the most widely used. How TCP Works. TCP is the most commonly used protocol on the Internet. When you request a web page in your browser, your computer sends TCP packets to the web server's address, asking it to send the web page back to you. The web server.
  2. ology, a packet would contain a header from the physical layer, followed by a header from the network layer (IP), followed by a header from the transport layer (TCP.
  3. DATA ENCAPSULATION | KEITH GEBHARDT 7 Chapter 2 In this chapter we will discuss some protocols as a review, as you should already be familiar with them. The protocols we will cover will be the ones you need to know for this course so you understand the data encapsulation examples we use later in this course. We will cover ARP, TCP, UDP, HTTP.
  4. Modèles TCP/IP et OSI. On trouvera ici une explication d'un second niveau sur les mécanismes de communication TCP/IP en regard du modèle OSI : mise en couche, encapsulation, désencapsulation, communication protocolaire d'égal à égal, UDP et TCP
  5. TCP et UDP sont les 2 principaux protocoles de la couche transport. La différence entre TCP et UDP sont fondamentales. Ces deux protocoles servent à échanger des paquets d'information entre 2 machines en utilisant leur adresse IP et un numéro de port. Pour expliquer la différence entre UDP et TCP, on va prendre une analogie : Protocole TCP. TCP fonctionne un peu comme le téléphone : il.
  6. Huttunen, et al. Standards Track [Page 5] RFC 3948 UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets January 2005 2. If the protocol header after the ESP header is a TCP/UDP header, recompute the checksum field in the TCP/UDP header. If the protocol header after the ESP header is a UDP header, set the checksum field to zero in the UDP header. If the.
Cisco and System Security Basics: Lesson 6 - Example ofTransport LayerPPT - Communicating over the Network PowerPointCCNA Review: TCP/IP Stack

I'm not sure this makes sense. The terms you use, encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance are used in Object Oriented Programming (OOP). The TCP protocol is not programming languages Encapsulation starts from the Uppermost Layer Transport layer we have 2 protocol UDP / TCP. Here we will discuss about TCP. The data in the transport layer is called as segment. Each sequenced segment can be assembled together on the receiver side. Then each segment are handled in network layer for network addressing or logical addressing and routing through internet. The data is named. d'encapsulation Protocoles TCP/IP au niveau de chaque couche TCP/IP 7 Application 4 Applications TCP/IP message HTTP FTP SMTP POP3 TELNET DNS 6 Présentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Transport (TCP) Segment TCP UDP 3 Réseau 2 Internet (IP) paquet IP ICMP RIP ARP 2 Liaison de données 1. Udp Packets Encapsulation Codes and Scripts Downloads Free. PyHeartbeat detects inactive computers by sending and receveing . UDP packets are used to send data from one computer to another over a network or from one application to another within a single computer

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